Monday, December 26, 2016

Is consciousness a cosmic phenomenon?



Titled, Consciousness, a Cosmic Phenomenon,* my article in the Journal of Consciousness Exploration and Research (JCER) examines the place of intellect and consciousness in the physical world and the universe. According to the hypothesis, mental processes might be analogous to the physical world, and that just like photons, emotions carry energy. Photons are the fundamental interactions of matter particles, and in the brain, sensory stimulus triggers the energy of emotions, the forces of mental interaction. Therefore, emotions motivate thoughts and  actions that recover the energy-neutral state of the brain. Material interaction lead to a temporal evolution, which increases complexity and formulates the poles of the universe. Cosmological evolution also gives rise to the intelligent mind, which together with the material particles, forms the elementary constituents of the universe. The entropy of both elementary particle constituents of the universe continuously changes between the poles. The mind maintains a low-entropy state due to constant interaction with the outside world via the sensory organs. The death of the body permits the entropy of the mind to increase. Depending on the mind’s energy state, the mental entropy will either accumulate information or energy, while remaining congruent with the temporal field in its journey toward one of the poles. The energy-rich mind converges towards expanding white holes, whereas an information-saturated mind becomes part of the black hole horizon. In the expanding white hole, space is infinite, yet everything feels neighborly and the infinite feels like a moment. In black holes the moment feels like eternity, yet it imposes a two-dimensional tightness, where everything is far and beyond reach. Beside material and mental elementary particles the universe also displays elementary particle characteristics. The three interconnected, interdependent building blocks formulate the organizational unity and fractal structure of the universe. Intelligent life is a microcosm of the universe, and the mind is an active participant in cosmic evolution. Read the whole article...

*Deli, E., Consciousness, a cosmic phenomenon—A hypothesis. (2016) Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research 7(11): 910-930.


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Monday, December 12, 2016

From Aristotle to Mach's principle

Image result for aristotle
Aristotle, marble portrait bust, Roman copy (2nd century BC) of a Greek original 


Our 21st century world boasts a highly interconnected society, unprecedented technological development and increasing democratization all over the world, yet scientific literacy is lagging behind. Even science seem to be struggling with some basic questions, such as time, gravity or space. In many ways we still think in terms absolute time and space, inherited from Newtonian physics, However, the need for special reference frame contradicts some basic, contemporary requirements of science, such as Mach's principle, which disfavors the existence of a special orientation, i.e., reference frame. Although in a different context, the scientific and philosophical principle was debated since antiquity. For example, Aristotle viewed space only epitomizing the place of objects. Newton however, built his theory on absolute space.

Aristotle's idea idea was reformulated in Mach's principle, which strongly motivated Einstein. According to Mach's principle all locations and all motions are relative; the results of measurements should not depend on the choice of coordinates assigned to events. Inertial mass is determined by the mass distribution of the universe and inertia is caused by the gravitational action of distant matter. Mach's revolutionary insight is the realization of the impossibility to measure changes with time. "Time is the abstraction at which we arrive by the changes of things." Nevertheless, in contrast to its name, 'relativity' it still contains absolute elements and does not resolve the problem of the origin of inertia and fails to follow Mach's principle.

Let's examine the global picture of the universe in relation to Mach's principle. Current data shows that black hole horizons are information blocking, two dimensional firewalls that cannot be approached. As a consequence, the immense field strength of black holes form the outer boundary of the universe, in which Mach's principle is automatically followed due to dimensionality differences of space. The field strength would increase exponentially close to the black holes, leading to greater inertia. In contrast, smaller field strength in cosmic voids would generate small inertia.

In the Aristotelian view vacuum does not exist. In Newtonian physics vacuum is just a void, in quantum mechanics vacuum energy gives rise to virtual particles, in a process of constant creation and annihilation, and dictated by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The universe might agree with Aristotle with a twist however. If vacuum would increase the dimensions of the universe, then vacuum would lead to expansion of space and lead to the experience of dark energy. The pressure resulting from the field strength of black holes gravitational regions would be experienced as excess gravity, called dark matter. This simple, organically unified picture of the cosmos leads to an intuitive understanding of space and time as fundamental, interconnected fields. More information can be found in my book, 'The Science of Consciousness.' Such organic unity of the cosmos certainly would fit well with Aristotle.

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Monday, November 14, 2016

The physical foundation of the cosmos leads to Zeno's paradox



Zeno's paradox exists in several forms, all of them centering around relative movement that can be viewed as a discrete series. Zeno's paradox might be an old philosophical puzzle, but it might hint at the deep structure of the universe and connected to problems of modern science. The above illustration portrays the relative movement of Achilles and a turtle. It is an intuitive notion that the running Achilles reaches and overtakes the turtle in a finite time. Nevertheless, Zeno's logic takes apart the movement into a series of discrete distances, which sections Achilles's motion into an infinite sequence with extension to an earlier position of the turtle. As the turtle moves further on, the shrinking distance between the two is never eliminated. Although Achilles gets infinitesimally closer to the turtle, he can never reach it.

The topology of space between the poles (black and white holes), demonstrated by a Breton hat


As Einstein has shown, the overall picture of the universe is formulated by the spatial field, demonstrated by a Breton hat above. The field curvature changes smoothly from positive curvature near the black holes, to negative curvature near the white holes, whereas the microdimensions form standing waves, therefore form a quantized, step-wise progression between the poles. Constant frequency waves of the microdimensions organize along constant field curvature of space. This way the micro and macrodimensions are mutually exclusive, i. e., orthogonal. The macro- and microdimensions are connected via interaction, or decoherence, which ensures their congruent development and their interconnected, interdependent relationship. One of the consequences of their parallel development is the Zenon's paradox. The inevitable contradiction arises of parallel sequences of discrete series and a field with smooth gradation is experienced in many fields from physical sciences to social phenomena. 



Gaussian (left) and Power law distribution (right)

The microdimensions maintain a closed minimal surface and form smooth spatial and temporal topology via gradual succession of standing wave frequencies between the poles, inverse volume changes between macro- and microdimensions by Lorentz transformations enhance field curvature and pressure differences, leading to Gaussian distribution (shown above left). However, the curving field directs the decision of the participant, and the choice of the participant further modifies the field (as observed along the brim and the top of the hat). Hence, in the curving field deterministic, irreversible and self-perpetuating changes give rise to singularities, called poles. The polar singularities stabilize the structure of the cosmos, but allow the center of the field to empty out, leading to a power-law distribution (shown above, right). For example, fracturing resulting from rigid collisions also show power law distribution. The increasing gravitational differences of space, versus the minimal surface of the microdimensions engender the large scale spatial-temporal complexities and cellular structure of the universe and reflect the contradiction of Zeno's paradox: the smooth changes of the field happen in parallel to the step-wise changes of energy. These discrete fluctuation in space might give rise to quantum phenomena in material systems, and form the basis of the quantum computer. The microdimensions are reformulated on many scales and lead to submanifolds that form the fractal and cellular structure in the material world, biology and society. Hence, quantum phenomena (correlation between discrete and smoothly changing systems) might be more general across the material world, in biological systems, conscious processing and society.




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Tuesday, October 4, 2016

The benefits of cognitive and physical training on mental functioning


Older women

Physical decline and the loss of executive function, cognitive control and memory in older adults is a well known and unfortunate side effect of aging. Older adults consistently perform lower in memory tests, than younger individuals and the gap widens with advancing age. However, physically active adults tend to maintain greater flexibility, energy (mental and physical) in old age. Interval training has been shown to reverse the signs of aging by changing cell metabolism. Exercise has cognitive benefits by triggering the creation of new neurons in the hippocampus, a key brain region for learning, memory and mood regulation. But age related cognitive decline due to aging can be slowed by both physical and brain exercises, although the exact nature of the relationship has not been understood. A recent randomized trial that compared effects of two training protocols: cognitive training vs. physical training on cognition and brain function in older adults (56–75 years), confirmed that both physical and cognitive exercises are beneficial, although they benefit the mind in a different way.

Executive function refers to the ability to flexibly select information; to maintain, update, and abstract meanings; and to fluidly innovate ideas, while at the same time maintaining an active goal in mind. Brain imaging methodologies can be used to unequivocally demonstrate functional benefits of training exercises on the brain. Goal Management Training have been shown to benefit working memory, verbal and abstract reasoning and it also reduced depressive symptoms. Evidence supports the intuitive view that any exercise program is better than none and exercise improves life functionality more, than specific cognitive training protocols.

The present results also provide clinically-relevant evidence that aerobic exercise and cognitive reasoning training improves brain health differently. Cognitive training enhances executive functions and the supporting neural systems. Advanced reasoning training could increase the resilience of neural function and overall cognitive brain health. The brain benefits from cognitive training by increased neuronal demand and function in particular areas. In contrast, physical exercise led to memory gains by triggering functional improvements in the hippocampus, an area at the base of the brain that is important in memory, which is particularly vulnerable to aging and dementia. As the life expectancy increases, the cognitive benefits of healthy habits, such as complex reasoning and aerobic exercise is becoming more important to understand. Future trials are needed to determine whether combined protocols, such as reasoning training/physical exercise, have additive effects in promoting cognitive vitality for aging people.

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Monday, June 6, 2016

Brain stimulation, potentials and limitations


Human brain By NIDA
Measuring the brain electric activity by electrodes placed on the cortical surface is more than a hundred years old technique. Recently it has been noted that environmental electric and magnetic fields can influence brain activity. For example, cell radiofrequency waves emitted by cell phones can modulate brain frequencies within neurons that are close proximity to the phone. In animal experiments it has been shown that cell the similar radio frequencies even cause brain cancer. However, in the study the rate of exposure was extreme, so were the treatment conditions. Should you be worried? Probably not.

In disease:
EEG or electroencephalogram picks up voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current of the cortical neurons, which are arranged close to the brain's surface. Brain stimulation reverses the process. it uses electrical, magnetic, radiowave, or focally targeted sources to modulate the electric activity inside the brain. The number of brain areas that can be manipulated with electric impulses toward physiological, physical changes is growing. In a special case electrodes can be implanted deep in the brain to influence activity there, called deep brain stimulation. Deep brain stimulation can be effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, depression, chronic pain and other movement disorders. Although deep brain stimulation has immense potential in the treatments of many diseases, some caution  is warranted. The results have been inconsistent so far. For example individual differences in the position of brain structures can influence the effectiveness of the procedure. Potential side affects of deep brain stimulation, due to the incision of the procedure can also be dangerous. New technique, which might produce deep brain stimulation without the need for incision is in the works.

In healthy subjects:
In healthy subjects brain stimulation can enhance creativity, applied during slow wave sleep it enhances memorization, and a new study has shown a dramatic improvement of piloting skills of novice pilots. If confirmed, this study really opens the possibility for mental enhancements with this technique. Studies in rodents have shown motivation and behavior modification by manipulating the VTA  (small area at the base of the brain, marked on the human brain image), with potential treatment for addiction and other mental problems. Stimulation of the frontal part of the brain has been shown to increase performance and endurance in tasks requiring sustained attention and focus. Transcranial direct current stimulation with slow oscillations during slow wave sleep almost doubles overnight memory retention. Magnetic stimulation improved spatial-precision memory via improved brain network function. However, the treatments are currently based exclusively on empirical studies, because the theoretical background for brain stimulation has been missing so far.

A new, physics based hypothesis of consciousness is urgently needed to give brain stimulation a strong predictive power. The book, 'The Science of Consciousness' considers brain frequencies and emotions as energy states of the brain. This way some mental diseases have distorted or faulty brain activity, which can be modulated and improved by brain stimulation. For example enhanced brain frequencies play important role in focused activities, and during physical or emotional pain. In contrast, decreasing frequencies correspond to joy, and creative states. However, in the brain's complex operation the relative change of the frequencies and their rhythm is important, not their absolute value. Changing the energy balance of the mind through manipulating brain frequencies has a powerful physiological influence, making it an efficient modulator of thinking, emotional states and behavior. Long term stimulation can change or even induce the formation of new synaptic paths, leading to learning and some possible long term operational consequences. However the effect on the mental energy balance, therefore emotional, intellectual behavior need to be followed by behavioral modifications to maintain the effects. In addition, a better understanding of the mechanism and long-term effectiveness, side-effects of brain stimulation is essential. For this reason, it would be highly irresponsible to practice self-help brain stimulation at home just yet. 


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Monday, May 30, 2016

Memorization by rotary learning


Plato


 "A serious man in dealing with really serious subjects carefully avoids writing,"  lamented Plato about the spread of writing. He considered only unwritten knowledge to be deeper and more seasoned, because it can stand up against arguments. Also, the emergence of human thought prior to the wide spread prevalence of writing is notable. A great number of philosophers and sages — many of them well known today, Jesus, Buddha, Plato, Aristotle. Laozi (Lao-Tzu) and others — addressed the most important philosophical, scientific questions of human thought. Their questions remain relevant and in some cases remain unresolved to this day. The identity of great thinkers might be preserved for history because of writing, but their work might be just a time capsule of thousands of years of verbal evolution of thought that was solidified and frozen in permanent, written record.

To find an answer it is important to go back to Plato's lament about memorization and seasoned thought. Today the accepted view is that learning must be based on logic. Finding logical connections in a new material makes learning fun, exciting and motivating. However, in any subject matter lots of information fall outside this requirement. This is particularly true for basic knowledge that forms the foundation, such as vocabulary, or basic definitions. Rotary memorization takes a conscious effort, but forms automatic associations because of long term potentiation between neuronal connections. The formation of this short cut in brain connections is liberating for the mind. When presented with a problem, the mind can focus on the solution, instead of being bogged down by the need to focus on analyzing elementary relationships. This makes rotary learning invaluable.

The importance of emotion in memorization in learning has been shown by Kimberly et al. Greater emotional experiences impact mental focus to a greater extent and consequently better remembered. In addition, negative emotional experiences are remembered even better than positive ones, as sensational, violent experiences compete for students attention in school. Csikszentmihalyi and Hunter has shown that acquiring psychological capital by learning imbues long term happiness and even well-being. Positive attitude in school work makes learning pleasurable and highly efficient, especially if concepts are actively discovered. Rote learning is viewed as an old fashioned, shallow learning method, which has no place within contemporary school. Rotary learning, prevalent in Asian countries, has another benefit, as a form of meditation, enhances mood and imparts patience and emotional stability. Rotary learning of course also enhances mental capital, which comes in handy when taking international tests or apply for higher learning. Patience and emotional stability as a direct result of rotary learning can take us back to Plato. Rock-solid foundation of knowledge is a great benefit during debates, because it imparts fluid, seasoned connections between material, leading to confidence. A person with solid mental ground cannot be shaken easily. Although  confidence does not grade the validity of knowledge, debate does, which again proves Plato point. In writing it is far easier easy to cover up inconsistencies in argument, as the falsities of immense number 'scientific ideas' of past well demonstrate. The current question remains: how many scientific facts of today will be part of our understanding tomorrow?

Lively social, political and scientific conversation and debate on social media forms a better society. This would naturally weed out unreliable, fake news items. Well informed citizenry is emotionally stable and makes good decisions even at the ballot box, helping to build a better society.


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Monday, May 2, 2016

Belief and emotional gravity; the opposing poles of the mental universe

Gravity curving the fabric of space


The ever present force of gravity governs the movement of objects and dictates the posture of living creatures, plants and animals. We tend take gravity for granted and only become aware of its importance when we lose our balance or riding in an elevator. However the mental world responds to and regulated by a temporal field, which leads to a temporal, or emotional gravity. Gravity underlies material existence and temporal gravity gives a stable foundation for our mental world. It is so important that constant change can cause such insecurity, which leads to madness. Temporal (emotional) gravity is a force acting through emotions. Just like gravity is characteristic of the positive spatial curvature regions of material aggregates. Temporal gravity, which is the degree of restriction in our lives, is specific to society. (In animals temporal gravity is a characteristic of the ecosystem.) Individual differences in emotional gravity among animals and people can be enormous. Although large temporal gravity is constricting, its absence produces carelessness and superficiality. As matter settles on according to its density and mass, people also tends to separate in society according to their emotional gravity. People with high temporal gravity have the tendency for enhanced brain frequencies due to negative attitude and negative outlook, which overwhelms them with details, making problems—even the easiest ones—difficult. Criticism is just a tool in an inherent search of sensitivities, soft points by people with high emotional gravity to test the temporal limitation of their environment.

Characteristics of high temporal gravity people:
  •  Critical tendency, resist change
  •  Enthusiastic to start projects, but not having patience to finish them 
  •  The tendency for highly repetitious language
  •  They can be easily cheated by empty promises
  •  They are characterized by large emotional swings (personal attacks, violence followed by regret and overly nice behavior) 

Emotional gravity depends on social environment, individual characteristics and even age. The flexibility and resiliency of young people indicates small emotional gravity. Although they adapt well to changes, including fashion trends, boundless joy and excruciating pain make the emotional life of children intense. Temporal gravity increases with age, which mutes the intensity of emotions, so the difference between joy and pain decreases. Since higher brain frequencies are deterministic and form detail oriented mental processing, they correlate with a contracting mind. This is a highly uncertain mental world, which requires constant assurances of safety. However, seeking safety remains futile and hopeless over the long run. The mental world is based on fear, therefore although these ideas appear threatening, they have no lasting power. The temporal field is conserved
, emotional gravity gives energy to hold on, to maintain old habits, relationships and our belongings. These are mental clutches that give an artificial confidence, pride. So people with a high temporal gravity constantly try to increase their control over their immediate environment, leading to neediness, controlling and even abusive tendencies.

Opposite to gravity, belief and trust is a source of emotional strength and prerequisite of intellect. An expanding, trusting mind gravitates toward positive emotional states. Even suffering and pain has a meaning for them. Belief is an inner confidence of trust, which gives us courage, it allows us to be selfless and altruistic when we see others in trouble and it allows us to stick to our moral principles, even if we face difficult, or adverse consequences. Although open and more trusting, emotionally stable people cannot be easily cheated. Belief is the stable intellectual ground, on which to formulate a system of thought in the mind. This organizational reflection of the world and society is called world view. What is your world view? Does it support your goals with trust and confidence or does it undermine your future by filling you with hesitation and fear?


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Monday, April 4, 2016

How to prepare for major life changes

Summitting Island Peak By Mountaineer


Mountain climbing is a sport that requires not only physical preparation, but careful forethought and resilience as well. Getting appropriate gear is essential. Once on the mountain, every step needs to be negotiated carefully and crossing big boulders, hiatuses must occur in one jump, in the first try, because an unsuccessful attempt can be fatal. In addition, unsuccessful attempts tires the climber physically and mentally, dramatically increasing the chances of failure in subsequent attempts. This rule and pattern is also true for life, where big changes are difficult to execute and can be excruciating to adjust. Even positive events, such as carrier opportunities can throw an unprepared person off guard. Attempting to execute major transformations without proper preparation can force a person to fall back to where they have started, often saddled with remorse, skeptical environment and emotional turmoil, leading to an eventual resignation. Careful preparation, and forethought increase the chances of success and gives patience to wait for the right time to carry them out. Preparation includes, but not limited to, saving up money, mental or physical training or learning about the details of the planned change. When a person prepares diligently, changes become manageable and almost an automatic process. Without such preparation changes are fraught with dangers.

What are the steps of careful preparation? In the physical world it is inherently understood that movement in a straight line is almost never possible, for example it is necessary to slow down when taking a U turn. The abstract mental sphere can be considered an analogue of a physical landscape, so moving toward goals without consideration of circumstances is rarely prudent. Although in the mental world there are no signposts, the challenges are fairly similar the physical world. By pushing forcefully toward one objective is tiring and rarely leads to productive outcome. The best way to progress is to take advantage the openings offered by life's events. The short cut to success lies in suitable opportunities. There might be blind alleys, or dead ends, but a well prepared traveler is patient to wait for the best weather conditions and choose safe paths. When anticipating major life changes, only careful preparation ensures success.


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Monday, March 21, 2016

After primordial oscillations a Foam: the secondary structure of the universe

Sloan Digital Sky Survey The accumulation of gravity bound structures is shown in yellow. 


The Big Bang, the hundred years old idea that is meant to explain the even distribution of the universe is in trouble. The microwave background radiation, which is the only tell-tale sign of the formation of the universe, is in clear contradiction with central origin of space. As my earlier blog demonstrate, gargantuan spatial fluctuations could gradually slowed down due to friction, which might have given rise to microdimensions. The existence of microdimensions means that any change in field curvature requires energy. Energy requirement slows and inhibits changes, and stabilizes spatial structure. Current data well supports such a process. Analysis of the universe material distribution at the largest scales shows a filamentary, wavy organization, completely congruent with a mixing and spreading of three dimensional waves within a perfect fluid. Indeed, gargantuan spring oscillations in a perfect vacuum would lead to highly fluid oscillations. In addition, such fluid and frictionless oscillations must have ended as space transitioned toward a harder state.

More detailed analysis of the universe reveals a foamy structure embedded within the large scale filaments. The above image is a time lapse photo of the universe; large scale foam structure evolves toward the more recent, lower portion of the image. In physical processes such structure arises, due to whipping or expanding material within a flexible medium, which can retain its inner structure through hardening. The secondary organization of the universe consists of various sized empty bubbles surrounded by galaxies and other gravity bound structures. These secondary formations resulted as expanding space formed gargantuan bubbles and pushed positive curvature regions outward. The above data suggests that the universe, which have started out as a highly flexible system, was subjected to whipping or expansion before gradual hardening.

Laniakea Supercluster of Galaxies  Curved paths indicate material (galactic) movement



The reason of this solidifying can be found in the smallest structure of space, in string theory. The birth of the microdimensions of string theory (called the Calabi-Yau space) must have been a universal break on the oscillations. Interactions of the microdimensions produces gravity, which hardens spatial structure. Indeed, gravitational regions, accompanied by great field strength, form rigid structures. The rigid gravity areas retain a solid and stable large-scale structure, whereas smaller-curvature areas are highly flexible. The stiff structures of galaxies only form outside or around the regions of cosmic voids. The above image clearly shows the opening of the empty void enclosed by gravitational regions. Light converges due to the gravitational pull of large objects and diverges due to the negative-curving field. Thus light follows the : on the grandest scale the cosmos is like a house of mirrors. More details, such as the role of gravity in the large scale structure of the universe can be found in my book, 'The Science of Consciousness'. On the above figure Laniakea Super-cluster contains the Milky-way galaxy, the home of our own solar system.

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Monday, March 14, 2016

Primordial oscillations, an alternative mechanism to the Big Bang

Microwave anisotropy map of the universe


Big Bang is the scientifically accepted theory for the initial formation of the universe. The model accounts for the gargantuan size of the universe and its apparently perfectly even distribution. To solve the presumably extremely high initial density with the resulting uniform structure all over space, an immense and sudden increase in size, explosion, has been put forward. To accommodate observations that showed an extremely smooth distribution of the large scale structure in the cosmos, a faster bang, called inflation was suggested. However, the driving force of inflation is missing, and the mechanism conflicts on many points with the microwave background radiation. Below I introduce an alternative mechanism that can generate a uniform matter distribution throughout the visible cosmos, and it is also coherent with the microwave background radiation.

The book, ‘The science of consciousness’ proposes that strings are the primordial energy of the universe. Replacing the traditional Big Bang with energy vibrations is an idea that originates in string theory, where point-like particles are replaced with strings, one dimensional energy vibrations. String oscillations as the source of matter and all structures of the material universe might be shocking. However, primordial string vibrations could occur with abundance and fluidity, because without stable spatial structure no temperature or pressure could form. The kinetic energy of string fluctuations would accumulate as the self-energy of a smooth, symmetric and an information blocking horizon, which separates an insulated micro dimensional space, thereby calibrating the constant energy level of space. The formation of the microdimensional space would give rise to the first interactions, time zero of the universe. Interaction, which is an energy requiring volume exchange between the macro and microdimensions, stabilized the spatial structure. The beginning of time gave birth to interacting fermions.


time evolution of the large-scale structure
The time progression from left to right shows the gradual formation of foam (credit: NSF)



In congruent with string oscillations, the latest findings show a filament structure on the largest scales of the universe. The above mechanism also fits well with measurements of the cosmic background radiation, which shows that the curvature of space is nearly flat and the fluctuations show almost Gaussian (even) distribution. On the above image the series of pictures above indicate how the evolution of gravity bound structures occurs parallel with the expansion of space. Without the existence of a stable spatial field, lissome string fluctuations could not have given rise to gravitational waves, and consequently, Big Bang gravitational waves cannot be detected with even our current, fairly sophisticated technology. (The recently detected gravitational waves are the result of black hole collision.) The decreasing amplitude oscillations could very well calibrate the constant energy level of space and, at the moment of creation, spike the temperature, allowing recombination and nucleosynthesis. The high temperature would drive spatial expansion. Secondary interactions would give rise to a foamy structure. This simple mechanism can eliminate many problems that plague the theory of Big Bang and inflation.

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Monday, March 7, 2016

The holographic principle, a possible explanation for particle mass

Natural logarithm of three generations of fermion masses. The natural logarithm of fermion masses increases linearly within each particle type (quarks, electrons, and neutrinos). The only deviation is for down quarks. 

Material fermions come in three families. The exponentially increasing masses of particles within one particle family has been a puzzle. 'The science of consciousness,' introduces in a cohesive, coherent physical view that examines particle operation, and cosmology from a same perspective, which shed light to the puzzling differences between masses of fermion generations. Particles are not static object, but can transform into each other within one family by controlling energetic changes of the environment. Landauer’s principle recognizes the thermodynamic connection between energy and information. For the first time ever, converting information into free energy has been demonstrated (Toyabe et al., 2010) and the exact amount of heat released when one bit of information was erased has been measured by BĂ©rut and colleagues (2012). As a consequence, information saturated regions will heat up, whereas energy rich areas will be cold. The holographic principle in string theory recognizes that the information of a volume of space is contained on the boundary (Susskind, 1994) and black holes are information-saturated. The regions of black holes, which are know to be information saturated therefore should display extreme (hot) temperatures. Taken together, the holographic principle and Landauer’s principle mean that information accumulation of particles by the incessant standing-wave tick-tock of the universe eventually uses up energy and turns those particles into black holes. This is an important realization, because it means that within one family, particles only differ in their energy-information content and energy information change would exponentially increase mass. If this is true, than the natural logarithm of particle mass within one family would formulate a straight line. The above figure clearly shows this to be the case. The vastly different mass members of the three-particle families are stable only within the corresponding field strength of vastly divergent gravity environments. For example, within Earth’s mild gravity, only the lowest mass of each particle type is stable. However, greater gravity environments, such as neutron stars would favor the second or third generations of fermions.


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